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Space missions are expected to fail which must not deter the scientific community in India that saw the Vikram lander not making it to the lunar surface from attempting again, as this is the business out there, Tom Soderstrom, Chief Innovation and Technology Officer at NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), has stressed. The debris of the crashed Vikram lander on the lunar surface has been located though there is a sort of discrepancies in who located it first: NASA or the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).We're very much interested in Jupiter's moon Europa that has liquid water under its icy surface and from time to time erupts in huge geysers. There may be microbial life there. So we're going to go to Europa," said Soderstrom.

In November, the US space agency said that an international research team led out of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, has detected water vapour for the first time above Europa's surface.

Before the recent water vapour detection, there have been many tantalising findings on Europa.
The spacecraft was launched on its mission to the Moon from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Andhra Pradesh on 22 July 2019 at   IST (09:13 UTC) by a GSLV Mark III M1. The craft reached the Moon's orbit on 20 August 2019 and began orbital positioning manoeuvres for the landing of the Vikram lander. The lander and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region at a latitude of about 70° south on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates to two Earth weeks. A successful soft landing would have made India the fourth country after the Soviet Union, United States and China to do so.

However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory while attempting to land on 6 September 2019 which caused a 'hard landing'. According to a failure analysis report submitted to ISRO, the crash was caused by a software glitch. ISRO may re-attempt a landing by the second quarter of 2021 with Chandrayaan-3.

The big takeaway from the Chandrayaan-2 mission is that space probes are bound to fail and none other than NASA knows it better.

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